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Wednesday, October 28, 2020

The Fernwood Champion Trees

South African Champion Tree: Moreton Bay Fig 

(Moraceae: Ficus macrophylla)
Alternate common name: Australian Banyan | Australiese baniaan (Afrikaans)

Date Visited:   August 2020
Location: Fernwood Avenue, Newlands Cape Town.

Moraceae: Ficus macrophylla),  South African Champion Tree, Moreton Bay Fig, Alternate common name Australian Banyan, Australiese baniaan Afrikaans

( Moreton Bay Fig - The Fernwood Trees )

Driving down the leafy lane in Fernwood avenue, Newlands Western Cape, it appeared a little daunting to locate the Champion Monterey bay fig that we were searching for. Most trees in this neighbourhood were on an impressive scale.  I wondered to myself how on earth would it be possible to identify one champion tree amongst so many potential suitors. How wrong I had been, as we approached the end of the road, there it appeared, majestic and imposing, confined to a private residence. 

Fernwood Lane
( Fernwood road lined with trees )

Moraceae: Ficus macrophylla),  South African Champion Tree, Moreton Bay Fig, Alternate common name Australian Banyan, Australiese baniaan Afrikaans
( Moreton Bay Fig - The Fernwood Trees )

Our first observation about this champion was that it had a sibling, of similar age, but a mere shadow of this behemoth. Requiring permission to admire the complete structure, the large fig was hidden from sight by an annoying,  boundary wall obstructing our view of this gem. Waiting anxiously as we rang the doorbell, the landlord needing to provide final access to the estate to witness this spectacle.

Moraceae: Ficus macrophylla),  South African Champion Tree, Moreton Bay Fig, Alternate common name Australian Banyan, Australiese baniaan Afrikaans
( Moreton Bay Fig - The Fernwood Trees )

It was the height of the COVID 19 epidemic, and visitors were not welcome in these trying times. Thankfully we were welcomed like old friends, Susan Smith as she introduced herself is the proud owner.  After exchanging pleasantries, the tree appeared in full view, it swept me off my feet. A large column structure with a crown that exploded like a volcano, its leafy limbs outstretched like billowing smoke. A noble tree worthy of its status as a Champion tree, we were relishing the opportunity to admire the elaborate canopy.
Moraceae: Ficus macrophylla),  South African Champion Tree, Moreton Bay Fig, Alternate common name Australian Banyan, Australiese baniaan Afrikaans
( Moreton Bay Fig - The Fernwood Trees )

How different this colossus was compared to the Kindergarten Giant, no masses of hanging aerial rooting systems and one main muscular trunk. Supported by a well-developed buttress root system and Similar in stature and age to the Arden Gardens wedding tree (also a Moreton Bay Fig), these fig trees are rated as the finest specimens of its species in the world.

Moraceae: Ficus macrophylla),  South African Champion Tree, Moreton Bay Fig, Alternate common name Australian Banyan, Australiese baniaan Afrikaans
( Moreton Bay Fig - The Fernwood Trees )

Wanting to return to record the exhibition, we made the necessary arrangements to return when the aloes that surrounded the base were in full bloom. Excited by the prospect, we left feeling rather content that we had paved the foundation for our return.

Moraceae: Ficus macrophylla),  South African Champion Tree, Moreton Bay Fig, Alternate common name Australian Banyan, Australiese baniaan Afrikaans
( Moreton Bay Fig - The Fernwood Trees )

We returned in the spring, the garden was in full bloom, and our champion glowed in the warm morning sunshine. Originating from the eastern parts of Australia, this impressive individual is estimated to be 160 years old, a mere youngster in tree terms. Oh, how this tree will impress in the next hundred years.

Moraceae: Ficus macrophylla),  South African Champion Tree, Moreton Bay Fig, Alternate common name Australian Banyan, Australiese baniaan Afrikaans
( Moreton Bay Fig - The Fernwood Trees )
Upon our return, Susan was the most patient and welcoming host.  Our young son discovered her fish and tadpole pond, and she gave him caring attention to help us get to document and admire this beautiful champion in her equally beautiful garden.

Moraceae: Ficus macrophylla),  South African Champion Tree, Moreton Bay Fig, Alternate common name Australian Banyan, Australiese baniaan Afrikaans
( Moreton Bay Fig - The Fernwood Trees )

Moraceae: Ficus macrophylla),  South African Champion Tree, Moreton Bay Fig, Alternate common name Australian Banyan, Australiese baniaan Afrikaans
( Moreton Bay Fig - The Fernwood Trees )

This tree's size Index is listed as #322 and is based on the formula below with an impressive 27m high, the crown is a whopping 45,5m.



Moraceae: Ficus macrophylla),  South African Champion Tree, Moreton Bay Fig, Alternate common name Australian Banyan, Australiese baniaan Afrikaans
( Moreton Bay Fig - The Fernwood Trees )

Although this tree can be viewed from the street if you would like to explore the complete structure, you will need to make prior arrangements.

Moraceae: Ficus macrophylla),  South African Champion Tree, Moreton Bay Fig, Alternate common name Australian Banyan, Australiese baniaan Afrikaans
( Moreton Bay Fig - The Fernwood Trees )

Ecstatic that we had enjoyed the company of this majestic beast, we thanked our wonderful host and departed.

Our timing was perfect.  Thanks to Susan for hosting us in her beautiful garden during its full bloom in the peak of spring 2020.  We appreciate the effort that she had gone to, ensuring that her majestic champion was perfectly dressed for the occasion.


Join us on our travels exploring 
Majestic Trees of Southern Africa

Monday, August 31, 2020

Spring 2020 Flowers Video

We have not yet been on our official annual flower excursion yet, but a quick drive up the West Coast for a few hours this past weekend proved to be so much fun.   

Sometimes a photo just does not justify the true beauty of nature.  My video footage is not the greatest, but I'm still discovering all the new features of my new video software #FilmoraPro -  while I am having endless fun this year in the flowers.  The drought has departed and the flowers have arrived, saying thank you.  

This is truly a wonder of nature and a must-see.    

Take some time out, stop, smell the flowers, and give your soul time to catch up with you.


Thank you to my wonderful husband, Alex and our beautiful family for joining me in the fun!

Join the Facebook Group: 
West Coast Flowers of South Africa

#Flowers #Spring #Spring2020 ##WestCoast #SouthAfrica #Langebaan #Postberg #Cederberg #BiedouwValley #Namaqualand #Daisies #FilmoraPro

Friday, August 28, 2020

The Boschendal Lane


(The Boschendal Lane Champion Karri Gum Trees)
(Myrtacaea: Eucalyptus diversiclour)
Karri Gum
Alternate common name 
Karriebloekom (Afrikaans)

The Boschendal wine estate perfectly positioned in the fertile mountain valleys and popular amongst wine lovers in the cape. The name Boschendal broken into Bos-en-Dal, or wood and valley, reveals this breathtakingly beautiful area, Situated between the Simonsberg and Drakenstein mountains. We were heading towards the Winelands, approximately one hour outside Cape Town. Passing Stellenbosch and on the way to Franschhoek, this is South Africas second oldest wine estate, dating back to 1685. Boschendal is a place were generations of families have worked and steeped in history, with its dated heritage buildings and manor houses, we were automatically transformed back in time.

With a host of activities, guests staying in the cottages can enjoy farm living and access to hiking trails, MTB trails, horse riding, cellar tours and wine tasting to name but a few.

(The Boschendal Lane Champion Karri Gum Trees)


We visited on a warm sunny summers day excited by the prospect of yet another encounter with some magnificent trees. Tree hunting is exciting as one never quite know what to expect. We were only day visitors, so access to the farm would be limited. We had no knowledge as to where to locate the trees on the estate. Luck was on our side, and after some negotiating with the manager on duty, we were escorted to the now-famous Boscendal Lane.

A huge lane of Karri Gum trees lines the road to the old manor house on the estate. This grove of trees is estimated to be over two centuries old and recorded as the tallest trees in the country by virtue of their overall size index. Standing a staggering 50,4m tall and with a crown measuring an impressive 33,6m these are gigantic beasts indeed. What makes these Champions more impressive is the number of trees that form a wall-like fortress with more than twenty trees dominating the landscape.

(The Boschendal Lane Champion Karri Gum Trees)

We were under an escort, so we did not get enough time to connect with these colossal giants, but this gives us more reason to return to savour some quiet quality time in their presence. Who knows we may book a cottage and spend the weekend enjoying this magnificent wine estate and all the magic that it has to offer. Could not think of anything better than watching the sunset and sipping on some of the finest wines in the country right here amongst this splendour.
(The Boschendal Lane Champion Karri Gum Trees)

Monday, August 17, 2020

The Kindergarten Giant

Moreton Bay Fig, Champion Tree, South Africa, UCT Upper Campus, Kindergarten Giant, Cape Town, Alex Aitkenhead, Majestic Trees, Southern Africa
(The Kindergarten Giant: Moreton Bay Fig)

Moreton Bay Fig (Moracaea: Ficus macrophylla)
Common name Australian Banyan

Moreton Bay Fig, Champion Tree, South Africa, UCT Upper Campus, Kindergarten Giant, Cape Town, Alex Aitkenhead, Majestic Trees, Southern Africa
(The Kindergarten Giant: Moreton Bay Fig)

Located on the eastern slopes of Table Mountain in the Western Cape, driving along Rhodes Drive take the UCT off-ramp and proceed to the upper campus. This delightful specimen has established a foothold in the UCT Educare Center, vigilantly minding the children at play.

Moreton Bay Fig, Champion Tree, South Africa, UCT Upper Campus, Kindergarten Giant, Cape Town, Alex Aitkenhead, Majestic Trees, Southern Africa, ficus macrophylla, Moraceae, Australian banyan
(The Kindergarten Giant: Moreton Bay Fig)

Originating from the eastern shores of Australia here stands a true Champion, Moreton Bay Fig or Australian banyan (Moraceae: Ficus macrophylla). Its common name is derived from Moreton Bay in Queensland, Australia, a strangler fig by nature, with seed germination usually taking place in the canopy of a host tree and the seedling lives as an epiphyte until its roots establish contact with the ground. Enlarging, then strangling its host, eventually becoming a freestanding tree.

Moreton Bay Fig, Champion Tree, South Africa, UCT Upper Campus, Kindergarten Giant, Cape Town, Alex Aitkenhead, Majestic Trees, Southern Africa, ficus macrophylla, Moraceae, Australian banyan
(The Kindergarten Giant: Moreton Bay Fig)

We owe a debt of gratitude to the UCT's online communications head and long-time tree lover, Rethea Deetlefs, who has immortalized this majestic tree. Alerting the Dendrological Society of South Africa about this remarkable giant, it was shortlisted by the Champion Tree evaluation panel and listed as the Kindergarten Giant.

Moreton Bay Fig, Champion Tree, South Africa, UCT Upper Campus, Kindergarten Giant, Cape Town, Alex Aitkenhead, Majestic Trees, Southern Africa, ficus macrophylla, Moraceae, Australian banyan
(The Kindergarten Giant: Moreton Bay Fig)

 Unique in its construction and appearance in comparison to its closest rivals just down the road so to speak. The behemoth Arden Garden Moreton Bay fig with its muscular limbs and imposing buttress roots, or the Fernwood Trees with towering column-like trunks, tall and slender like models on the runway, in perfect step.

Moreton Bay Fig, Champion Tree, South Africa, UCT Upper Campus, Kindergarten Giant, Cape Town, Alex Aitkenhead, Majestic Trees, Southern Africa, ficus macrophylla, Moraceae, Australian banyan
(The Kindergarten Giant: Moreton Bay Fig)

Elegant and refined the Kindergarten Giant branches out like a fountain, providing pleasant, shade for the centre's playpark.

Moreton Bay Fig, Champion Tree, South Africa, UCT Upper Campus, Kindergarten Giant, Cape Town, Alex Aitkenhead, Majestic Trees, Southern Africa, ficus macrophylla, Moraceae, Australian banyan
(The Kindergarten Giant: Moreton Bay Fig)

We visited during the lockdown period, deserted and quiet, allowing us time to appreciate such a magnificent colossus. It was late summer and hot, the sun was bright and high; nevertheless, the expanse of the canopy provided sufficient shade to savour our time spent.

Moreton Bay Fig, Champion Tree, South Africa, UCT Upper Campus, Kindergarten Giant, Cape Town, Alex Aitkenhead, Majestic Trees, Southern Africa, ficus macrophylla, Moraceae, Australian banyan
(The Kindergarten Giant: Moreton Bay Fig)

Another unique quality of the Kindergarten Giant is the myriad of rooting arrangements that adorn this creature like a thick warm cloak. Surrounding the central trunk, disguising its breadth and providing an unusual character for this tree. We have no doubt that it contributes sufficient entertainment for the children as it did for our gathering on the day.

Moreton Bay Fig, Champion Tree, South Africa, UCT Upper Campus, Kindergarten Giant, Cape Town, Alex Aitkenhead, Majestic Trees, Southern Africa, ficus macrophylla, Moraceae, Australian banyan
(The Kindergarten Giant: Moreton Bay Fig)


Moreton Bay Fig, Champion Tree, South Africa, UCT Upper Campus, Kindergarten Giant, Cape Town, Alex Aitkenhead, Majestic Trees, Southern Africa, ficus macrophylla, Moraceae, Australian banyan
(The Kindergarten Giant: Moreton Bay Fig)

Content with the understanding that this alien champion tree is protected from the woodcutter's axe, we departed adding to the list of numerous tales this tree must have recorded.

Moreton Bay Fig, Champion Tree, South Africa, UCT Upper Campus, Kindergarten Giant, Cape Town, Alex Aitkenhead, Majestic Trees, Southern Africa, ficus macrophylla, Moraceae, Australian banyan
(The Kindergarten Giant: Moreton Bay Fig)


Moreton Bay Fig, Champion Tree, South Africa, UCT Upper Campus, Kindergarten Giant, Cape Town, Alex Aitkenhead, Majestic Trees, Southern Africa, ficus macrophylla, Moraceae, Australian banyan



Moreton Bay Fig, Champion Tree, South Africa, UCT Upper Campus, Kindergarten Giant, Cape Town, Alex Aitkenhead, Majestic Trees, Southern Africa, ficus macrophylla, Moraceae, Australian banyan

Friday, August 7, 2020

Cellars-Hohenort Hotel Camphor Tree Grove

Cellars-Hohenort, Camphor Tree Grove, Champion Trees, Cape Town, Photo of camphor tree, Alex Aitkenhead, Constantia
(The grove of eight majestic camphor trees)

Camphor Trees (Lauraceae: Cinnamomum camphora
Alternate common name Kanferboom (Afrikaans)

Having witnessed the remarkable 300-year-old champion camphor trees, planted by William Van Der Stel, at the Vergelegen Estate in Somerset West.  Standing in front of the manor house and observing these remarkable trees, they will take your breath away. The trees were planted from seeds imported from Java (then under Dutch control) and lined out in front of the manor house.  

We were excited to learn about a similar elegant grove of champion camphor trees at the Hohenort Estate.  

Refined and distinguished, this impressive grove of beautiful camphor trees more youthful by comparison and only 150 years old, are perfectly placed in this internationally acclaimed garden.

The Cellars Hohenort was initially known as the Klaasenbosch farm, an estate that in 1693 belonged to the chief surgeon of the Duch East India Company, Hendrik ten Damme.  The Cellars building was the original wine cellar on the farm, high up on the slopes of Table Mountain, overlooking the Constantia Valley in Cape Town.  In 1906 the farm was bought by Arnold Spilhaus who constructed the Hohenort buildings.

After the death of Spilhaus in 1947, the farm was split into two sections and sold.  Then in 1991, the cellars building was purchased by Liz McGrath, who wanted to restore its historical beauty and convert the estate into a hotel.
Cellars-Hohenort, Camphor Tree Grove, Champion Trees, Cape Town, Photo of camphor tree, Alex Aitkenhead, Constantia
(one of the larger trees in the grove)

Peering over the wall, she admired this remarkable grove of eight Camphor Trees with loving and longing despair. It didn't take her long, she purchased the neighbouring Hohenort Hotel in 1993, re-uniting the two buildings and nine acres of surrounding property. 

After winning a string of international awards for its spectacular gardens, the Cellars-Hohenort estate had finally established itself as an international venue of choice.
Cellars-Hohenort, Camphor Tree Grove, Champion Trees, Cape Town, Photo of camphor tree, Alex Aitkenhead, Constantia
(The Hohenort Estate Hotel surrounded by Champions)

We visited the Cellars-Hohenort estate in winter, the garden was not as well kept as one would have expected, and the path was slippery and uneven. The camphor trees, on the other hand, had us in awe, we spent the morning exploring and appreciating the company of these stunning trees.

In the spring we would love to return in the late afternoon's fading light, with a glass or two of some of Constantias finest wine at hand, watching this magnificent performance, like ballerinas in Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake, all in perfect harmony.  
Cellars-Hohenort, Camphor Tree Grove, Champion Trees, Cape Town, Photo of camphor tree, Alex Aitkenhead, Constantia
(Ballerinas all perfectly in step)
Cellars-Hohenort, Camphor Tree Grove, Champion Trees, Cape Town, Photo of camphor tree, Alex Aitkenhead, Constantia
(Refined and elegant)
Cellars-Hohenort, Camphor Tree Grove, Champion Trees, Cape Town, Photo of camphor tree, Alex Aitkenhead, Constantia
(The entrance to the Cellars-Hohenort Estate)
Cellars-Hohenort, Camphor Tree Grove, Champion Trees, Cape Town, Photo of camphor tree, Alex Aitkenhead, Constantia
(some scale to these 150-year-old majestic trees)
Cellars-Hohenort, Camphor Tree Grove, Champion Trees, Cape Town, Photo of camphor tree, Alex Aitkenhead, Constantia
(Keanin admiring the size and beauty of the ballerinas)
Cellars-Hohenort, Camphor Tree Grove, Champion Trees, Cape Town, Photo of camphor tree, Alex Aitkenhead, Constantia
(Wondering through this award-winning international garden, nine acres of splendour)

Cellars-Hohenort, Camphor Tree Grove, Champion Trees, Cape Town, Photo of camphor tree, Alex Aitkenhead, Constantia
(We will return to replenish our souls)

Cellars-Hohenort, Camphor Tree Grove, Champion Trees, Cape Town, Photo of camphor tree, Alex Aitkenhead, Constantia
(Planted from seeds imported from Java as per the trees in Vergelegen)

Friday, June 26, 2020

Baobabs of Southern Africa

We surveyed his regal kingdom, it was a scene of destruction, an apocalypse, with limbs strewn across the battlefield, tears fell like rain on the parched earth. Weeping and wailing they cried out "the king has fallen. Our king is dead." Fortunately, the Glencoe farm had another majestic Baobab, more refined and elegant (maybe younger), its smooth flesh-like bark shining in the morning light. 

Surrounded by the mighty Drakensberg mountains that rose from the bushveld like castle walls, protecting these massive beasts as they stood imposingly over the Lowveld. This is where my love affair began with these mighty giants and icons of African bush (Adansonia digitata). We have had the privilege of meeting with remarkable Baobabs in Southern Africa and will continue in our quest to capture and write about these ancient trees.


Glencoe Baobab. Hoedspruit, Limpopo Province.
Searching for pancakes when we stumbled upon this noble statesman, worthy of its claim as the new master, prince to the fallen king on the Glencoe farm.


Glencoe Baobab. Hoedspruit, Limpopo Province.
Legend has it that after the Boer war two wagon loads of gold was despatched to the north of South Africa, Hoedspruit in particular. The precious gold was hidden in the hollow of a mighty Baobab and sealed with a termite queen that would provide the mound. This hollow is what lead to the downfall and ultimate collapse of this almighty king of the bushveld. 

Recorded as one of the largest and oldest residents, how sad to witness this fall from grace. A shadow of his former glory, forgotten and neglected, defeated but not dead. The old king lives, and growth was evident, who knows, in 1000 years, he may rule again; unfortunately, we will no longer be around to witness the glory.

Leydsdorp Giant Baobab. Gravelot, Limpopo Province.
Had the privilege of introducing myself to the giant of Leydsdorp, a former mining town in is hay day. Resigned to a ghost town, deserted and abandoned the residents vacated. All that remains is dilapidated buildings and a derelict old pub within the Bowles of the giant. 

Access is restricted as the opening has almost closed, but the giant shared the stories of inebriated miners and ghosts, and we listened intently. Content and elated, we departed knowing that the giant would still be around for centuries.
Manutsa Baobab. Hoedspruit, Limpopo Province.
Hiking through the forest on the manutsa trail takes you into another world, undiscovered and wild. We negotiated our way through caves and cleansed our soles in magical icy waterfalls. The trail leads back through the local village, standing guard in the middle of the informal settlements, you will find an impeccable baobab, not quiet a champion, yet. 

This magnificent specimen watches over his loyal subjects. We paid our respects to the almighty beast and admired the grandeur. We parted knowing that this was the beginning of yet another wonderful friendship. — at Hoedspruit, Manutsa.

Mwachema River Baobabs. Diani Beach, Kenya
While on assignment in Mombasa, our hosts in Diani beach entertained our party like royals. We did not travel for the sightseeing, our invitation and accommodation was bartered on the expectation of fantastic inviting images to encourage tourist to these white sandy beaches in a typical sun-drenched island setting. Requesting a guide to assist in finding the perfect pictures we stumbled upon this unique setting. Remarkable, elegant baobabs sunbathing on this tropical beach with camels and some local inhabitance to complete the scene. It was distractions like this and meeting with new friends that made our working holiday that much more memorable. — at Diani Beach, Mombasa, Kenya.

Mopani Rest Camp Baobab, Kruger National Park, Limpopo
After reading an article on the Mopani Rest Camp in Kruger, we were quick to record that the camp was host to a towering majestic baobab. Determined to make our formal acquaintance, and spend some quiet quality time in the cool shade of this splendid tree. We were reminded by a signpost not to throw stones into the hole as the resident owls were nesting. How special it would have been if they had made an appearance when we captured this moment, oh how memorable this would have been. — at Mopani Rest Camp.

Glencoe Baobab. (second tree), Hoedspruit, Limpopo Province.
Every cloud has a silver lining, but this was an exceptional golden moment.
Pafuri, Kruger National Park, Limpopo Province
Pafuri, land of the baobab, in fact, we witnessed forests from the elevated vantage of the thulamela ruins. Pafuri ranks as our preferred location in the Kruger National Park, we couldn't resist the opportunity to participate in a guided bushwalk. When asked what we wanted to observe on the walk, we did not hesitate, birds, river course and gigantic trees. Kruger did not disappoint, as we trekked farther and deeper into the wilderness we approached the mouth of the Lanner Gorge. Here at the entrance stood the gatekeeper. An almighty giant, confident it could rival its closest competitor (the Sagole Giant ) a mear 50 km away. We had an engagement with the Sagole Giant, but alas, it was not to be, maybe next time........

Myself Exchanging pleasantries with this gargantuan beast.

Mopani Rest Camp Baobab, Kruger National Park, Limpopo
Like a giant octopus, stretching its tentacles over the bush-veld. Content and cool in the midday heat, we stayed a while to admire the colossal reach of this behemoth. — at Mopani Rest Camp.

Mwachema River Baobabs. Diani Beach, Kenya
While on assignment in Mombasa, our hosts in Diani beach entertained our party like royals. We did not travel for the sightseeing, our invitation and accommodation was bartered on the expectation of fantastic inviting images to encourage tourist to these white sandy beaches in a typical sun-drenched island setting. Requesting a guide to assist in finding the perfect pictures we stumbled upon this unique setting. Remarkable, elegant baobabs sunbathing on this tropical beach with camels and some local inhabitance to complete the scene. It was distractions like this and meeting with new friends that made our working holiday that much more memorable. — at Diani Beach, Mombasa, Kenya.

Leydsdorp Giant Baobab. Gravelot, Limpopo Province
Had the privilege of introducing myself to the giant of Leydsdorp, a former mining town in is hay day. Resigned to a ghost town, its residents deserted the area, all that remains is dilapidated buildings and a derelict old pub within the Bowles of the giant. Access is restricted as the opening has almost closed, but the giant shared the stories of inebriated miners and ghosts, and we listened intently. Content and elated, we departed knowing that the giant would still be around for centuries. — at Giant Baobab Tree Leydsdorp.

Mopani area, Baobab.Kruger National Park, Limpopo — at Mopani Rest Camp.

Thulamela Ruins Baobabs.  Pafuri, Kruger National Park.


Scrambling along the winding trail, we eventually found the Thulamela archaeological site, situated on top of an elevated ridge that overlooks the Parfuri bushveld. Surrounded by ancient baobabs standing guard, watching over the ancestral spirits, the perfect setting. Home to kings and queens for centuries, here amongst the reconstructed walls that housed this settlement, stood some regal and imposing beasts. 


Our guides finding a comfortable location to rest and tell the age-old stories of how the Thulamela people occupied this area for centuries. We could not have enjoyed the moment more knowing that we were enclosed, protected and under the cool canopy of an unconventional king at this historical site. — at Thulamela Ruins, Pafuri.



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